Why is Blood Typing Important?

Blood typing is important in the hazardous blood transfusion procedure, but what are the blood types and how are these determined?

Blood Types and Genes

Your blood type is determined by your genes, specifically by the combination of the alleles you inherit from your parents. If you can recall from your biology class, alleles are the forms of the gene within one chromosome which are responsible for the codes of enzymes that create the A and B antigen. Possible combinations include, A, AB, B, and O which make up the ABO blood group. You might be surprised, however, that there are at least 20 blood group systems today including the Rh (rhesus) factor blood group, which is characterized by the presence of Rh antigen in the blood. This then makes up a total of 8 blood groups in humans.

Mixing Blood Types

How did people know that using a different blood type on a patient is fatal? You guessed it. Failed experiments in blood transfusion that resulted in deaths happened until 1901 when the human blood groups were finally identified by Karl Landsteiner. Mixing two different blood types will result to agglutination or clumping, causing cracks in the red cells, releasing toxic hemoglobin. The response is triggered by the body’s immune system which produces antibodies against the foreign blood cells. As a result, the blood vessels will clog up and stop circulating.

Finding Your Blood Type

To find out a person’s blood type, a blood sample must be taken to a laboratory and mixed with three reagents of three antibodies for A, B, and Rh. The laboratory technician will then observe what will happen with the mixtures to determine which one has agglutinated and are not compatible for the person’s blood type. The sample that shows no indication of agglutination is considered compatible. People with Rh negative blood can receive donated blood from Rh positive donors, but the next time he/she receives another set of Rh positive blood transfusions, there could be a problem.

Compatibility Issues

Even between a pregnant woman and her fetus, there could be some problems in the blood compatibility, if for example, a father is Rh positive type and a mother is an Rh-negative blood type. Their combination will result in a fetus with a positive Rh antigen. The result could be fatal for the baby and may result in hemolytic disease caused by the mother’s antibodies attacking the fetus’ red blood cells. Thankfully, this can be prevented with injections of Rh immune globulin during pregnancy and after delivery of the newborn.

Blood, Tissue, Organ, and Marrow Donation

Blood transfusion might be recommended in the following cases: severe anemia, bleeding during surgery, injuries and blood loss, cancer, and bleeding disorders, but careful testing is always done. Even when receiving tissue, organ, and bone marrow from a donor, both the recipient and the donor should be tested for compatibility before transplantation. Blood typing and HLA testing are done to ensure that the donor and the recipient match.

Five Crucial Ways to Keep Your Blood Pressure in Check

Unlike other types of health conditions, having a high blood pressure isn’t always something you can see or feel, and you don’t usually know you have it until it’s serious enough to cause significant problems and increase your chances of getting other complications.

However, the good news is that you don’t always need medication in order to improve the symptoms of hypertension. In fact, there are many lifestyle changes you can adopt in order to keep your blood pressure in check, such as the following:  

Decrease your salt intake

Sodium is the easiest way to raise your blood pressure, and if you notice that your heart rate is up after eating a hearty meal, then you need to change your dieting habits. While you can’t eliminate all sources of sodium from your diet (you still need to consume a small amount for your body’s daily needs), you can shift towards a cleaner and healthier diet with more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

Watch your waistline

The bigger the number on the weighing scale, the higher the blood pressure also tends to be – but that’s not the only thing you need to be looking out for. Aside from a high blood pressure, having a high body mass index in proportion to your height can lead to conditions such as sleep apnea, which can also further raise your blood pressure. Losing a small amount of weight can be really helpful here, as well as keeping an eye on your waistline.

Take deep breaths

When you have high blood pressure, means that your system is compensating for not having enough oxygen by trying to get it as quickly to your entire body as possible, and this is where deep breathing comes in. The best way to inhale is by imaging your stomach as something like a balloon. Take a deep breath slowly and allow that balloon to inflate, and exhale slowly.

Sleep early, wake up early

Not getting enough sleep is another big factor that contributes to stress, which in turn contributes to higher blood pressure. To make sure you get enough sleep, you can try setting your alarm to make sure you go to bed early at night and early in the morning for a full seven to eight hours of sleep.

Learn effective stress management

The most important thing you need to know when you have high blood pressure is that you not only need to minimize getting into stressful situations, but that you also need to know how to handle them better if you do encounter them.

This includes, but isn’t limited to, balancing work and life in a way that lets you get the most out of both. If you think you’re focusing on work too much, it’s best to allow yourself to take a break to focus on your loved ones and your health.

Differences in Uterine, Ovarian and Cervical Cancer

Perhaps you have heard of the term cervical cancer when you asked your doctor about HPV vaccinations, but there are also other forms of gynecologic cancers that women must be aware of such as uterine and ovarian cancer.

Uterine Cancer
Also called endometrial cancer, it includes symptoms such as pelvic pain, painful intercourse, unexplained weight loss, bleeding or spotting, and unusual discharges. Sometimes, the woman might also have a mass or tumor in the affected area. There is no known cause for uterine cancer, but it has been observed that most of the women with the condition have very high levels of estrogen. Uterine cancer may be similar to cervical cancer because they both begin in the uterus, but the specific locations are different. Uterine cancer is first found in the endometrium, while cervical cancer starts in the lower part of the uterus or the surface of the cervix. Unlike cervical cancer, uterine cancer can be difficult to detect because there are no standard tests and doctors usually rely on the symptoms described by the patients.

Ovarian Cancer
This is a type of cancer that primarily affects the reproductive glands, but diagnosis of the illness can be difficult because some women can also have non-cancerous tumors and low malignant potential tumors in the ovaries. The former is considered benign, but the latter can potentially affect other tissues. There are various types of malignant ovarian tumors, but all of them exhibit the same symptoms, such as; pelvic pain, abdominal pain, bloating, urinary issues, and menstrual problems. Scholars still cannot point out what causes ovarian cancer, but there are studies that show that a woman is at risk if certain gene mutations are present.

Cervical Cancer
Most cases of cervical cancer begin in the area between the ectocervix and the endocervix. This type of cancer exhibits different symptoms than that of ovarian cancer, such as; pelvic pain, painful urination and increased urination, vaginal bleeding, bleeding between periods or after menopause, and heavy discharges. One common cause of cervical cancer is being infected with a strain of human papillomavirus, specifically HPV-16 and 18. Fortunately, there are HPV vaccines available in Singapore for women who want to give themselves extra protection. Cervical cancer can also be detected earlier than uterine cancer, even if the symptoms are not yet noticeable in the early stages.

Cancer Screening
Although there are some differences in the symptoms of the three gynecological cancers, there are tests which can detect any of these. If you suspect that you have one of these conditions, talk to your gynecologist in Singapore for the following tests: Pap smear, endometrial tissue sampling, ultrasound, pelvic exam, CT scan, MRI scan, and positron emission. A Pap smear is used for uterine and cervical cancer, the tissue sampling is used for uterine cancer, and pelvic examination can detect abnormalities in any part of the female reproductive system.

The Health Benefits of Beer  

Singapore comes to life at night. After work, we come together with our friends and talk about things. There is nothing wrong with coming together for booze but there are things that we need to know before indulging. The first thing that you should know is the Liquor Control Bill which forbids Singaporeans and visitors to consume alcohol beyond 10:30pm.

Craft-Beer

The second thing that we should know is the benefits of drinking beer. Beer is not just an alcohol that releases happy hormones when we consume it. It also gives benefits only if we drink it moderately.

  • Helps fight dementia: We should know that a new study made by Chinese researchers revealed that beers can help fight dementia. According to researchers, hops (a plant used to make beer) releases chemicals that can protect the brain cells from dementia caused by stress. This chemical is named Xanthohumol. It fights damage which leads to degeneration of brain cells. Beers can also boost one’s memory.
  • Helps digestion: Beers can help digestion. In fact, thirty cl glass of beer contain one gram of soluble fibre. Fibre deficiency can lead to intestinal and gastric disorders like diarrhoea and constipation.

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  • Helps lower bad cholesterol: It was mentioned earlier that beers contain fibre. Aside from digestion, fibre can also held reduce the LDL cholesterol levels in our body. LDL cholesterol is commonly known as the “bad cholesterol”. We should be aware that beers can reduce the risk of heart attack compared to non-drinkers.
  • Helps increase vitamin B: Beer also contains vitamin B (like B1, B2, B6 and B12).
  • Helps with colds: Beer can help us deal with colds. If we have colds, drinking warm beer can be a remedy. This is because when barley is heated, it can improve the circulation of blood. Furthermore, it can also help with the congestion.
  • Helps deal with insomnia: Beers can help us deal with insomnia. For people who have troubles sleeping, beers can be an excellent solution. Beers contain nicotinic acid and lactoflavin which promote sleep.
  • Helps blood clotting: Beers can help with blood clotting. There are ingredients in beer that prevent the formation of blood clotting.
  • Helps reduce anxiety: There is no doubt that beers can combat anxiety and stress. This is according to the University of Montreal. Two glasses of beer a day can make a difference at the end of the day.

So, if you fancy a bottle, indulge but remember to drink it moderately and remember the new Bill.

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Home Remedies for Your Sunburn

There are people who worship the sun to the point of overexposing themselves to it. People should be careful because sunburn can cause great pain and discomfort. Getting sun is not wrong but too much is harmful. The rays these days are not as healthy like before. So, if you are thinking about getting a tan, you should be prepared to counter your sunburn.

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The good news is that you can counter sunburn through home remedies. However, these remedies cannot reverse the effects of rays. The remedies will only make your skin better. Here are some tips that you can consider when you are enduring sunburn:

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  • Use aloe vera: Aloe vera is best to reduce the redness of the skin and the sting you are feeling. This plant can be purchased readily.
  • Use cool compress: To relieve the discomfort that you feel, you can consider cool compress. Just look for a washcloth and soak it in cool water. You can directly apply the compress directly to your burned skin. 
  • Moisturize: Looking for a moisturizing cream here in Singapore is not difficult. If you have any moisturizing cream in your house, you can use that. The moisturizers will prevent excessive drying.
  • Use potatoes: Not all Singaporeans know that potatoes can be an excellent pain reliever. You should cut the potatoes into small pieces then blend it. After they are pulverized, you can directly apply it to your sunburn. You can take a bath after. 
  • Apply cornstarch: For the bikini lines and armpits, you can put a dusting of cornstarch to avoid irritating it. You have to at least ease the chafing of your clothing.

If the pain persists, you can always go to your local drugstore and purchase over-the-counter pain reliever. When you consider pain relievers, be sure to follow the directions provided by the bottle. If you feel uncomfortable, you should stop using it.

Aloe Vera.